With the net enrollment ratio in primary education in Nepal at 94%, most children are in the school system, but the system fails to ensure that all enrolled children will continue in school cycle and complete primary education of acceptable quality. Given the system’s poor internal efficiency, Nepal is not likely to achieve the MDG and EFA goals of universal primary education by 2015. This article examines the status of universal primary education in Nepal in the light of legal provisions, enrollment and completion trends, and the quality, and management, of education, including financing. It highlights progress made, issues encountered, and some key lessons learned during the past decade. It examines the efforts to make primary education inclusive in terms of social and gender equity. The review of progress toward Education for All underscores that fulfilling the right to education in terms of adequate quality of services and learning outcomes requires sustained efforts and commitment from the government and local community in several priority action areas related to policies, achieving quality with equity, and educational management.