The objective of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of South–South migration and its impact on human development in Cameroon. It was carried out through a literature review analysing existing information and policies, followed by an exploration of the role of South–South migration through interviews and a household survey. The quantitative household survey (1,235 households) covered all the 10 regions of the country, with special attention given to the two largest cities of Yaoundé and Douala. The qualitative survey completed and enriched the quantitative data collected through semi-structured interviews conducted in the city of Yaoundé with key stakeholders and resource persons, able to provide a clear understanding of the research question. The analysis shows that migrants are in their majority young adults and men. Most of the return migrants are from African countries. Similarly, Africa remains the first destination of Cameroonian emigrants. Over half of emigrants send remittances to their household in Cameroon and authorized money transfer agencies are the most commonly used means for sending funds. Households in Cameroon also send transfers and assistance to migrants abroad. The presence of a migrant abroad has a significant impact on food, health and education expenditure and savings as well as the participation of household members in the labour market. The results of the qualitative study show that the perception of the impacts of migration are diverse and may vary depending on the type of migration.