The oftmentioned and thus the most controversial cause of child labour is poverty. However, the relationship between poverty and child labour is blurred as numerous theoretical and empirical studies focused on these issues show contradictories results. Besides, increasing attention is being paid to vulnerability as a key dynamic aspect of poverty, making more complex the impact of poverty on child labour. The aims of my thesis work is to clarify the relationship between poverty and child labour and to update it in the light of recent development in poverty and vulnerability measurement and the current context of multiple crises. I choose to focus on African countries as the majority of child labourers are found in these countries. Two main parts compose my PhD dissertation. First, my dissertation research revisits the links between child labour and household poverty. Second, the children participation to labour is part of a household strategy to reduce the income variability. The vulnerability of children to work is thus analysed in two different ways, according the type of shocks and the type of vulnerability (ex-ante or ex-post). The final chapter of my thesis aims to analyse if an exogenous household income increase, through remittances, have a positive impact on children work.