In Rwanda, between 2005 and 2010, there have been radical declines in the desired number of children, actual fertility, and child mortality along with a large increase in contraceptive prevalence. This study reviews trends in some of these measures. Multivariate analyses evaluate the relative importance for the desired number of children of years of schooling, wealth, urban residence, media exposure, child mortality, and attitudes toward gender equality. Variations in reproductive preferences, the total fertility rate, and unmet need for family planning are mapped for the 30 districts of Rwanda. The explanations for the rapid changes in reproductive attitudes and behavior are clearly related to the concerns of the country, the rapid rate of population growth, and its implications for economic development and reproductive health.