Migraine is a very common neurological disorder worldwide. Its prevalence is lower in developing countries. There were no data concerning the general population in Benin. We aimed to determine the prevalence of migraine in a rural community of Benin. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of Abomey from February to April 2003 and included 1113 persons selected by a two-stage survey. A case was defined according to International Headache Society criteria (1988). Of the 1113 persons, 37 had migraine. The lifetime prevalence of migraine was 3.3% (male 2.2%, female 4.0%). The peak prevalence was found in persons in the second decade of life. Higher levels of education were associated with migraine. Migraine without aura was the more frequent form (67.5%). The most frequent triggers of migraine were annoyance (73.0%), exposure to the sun (73.0%), heat (65.0%) and anxiety (51.4%). The low prevalence rate of migraine in Benin confirmed the results of the few available African studies. The disease is severe and occurs in a young population and could lead to a high socio-economical burden.