Essays on inequality and education

Type Book
Title Essays on inequality and education
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2003
Publisher Department of Economics [Nationalekonomiska institutionen], Univ.
This thesis consists of an introduction and four self-contained essays.
Essay I examines the contribution of socio-economic variables to Namibian income
inequality. I examine the extent to which total income inequality is due to within-group
inequality or between-group inequality. Income inequality in Namibia ranks among the
highest in the world. The within-group inequality seems to be the principal determinant
of total inequality. Education is an important factor in determining degrees of betweengroup

Essay II examines the differences in earnings between males and females in
manufacturing, services and the public sector in Namibia. The estimated earnings
differences are decomposed into endowment and discrimination components. The
results suggest that females are discriminated, but that females have a productivity
advantage over the males, which reduces the gross wage differential. Comparing the
OLS results with the results accounting for selection, the endowment component is not
affected, whereas the discrimination component is reduced.

Essay III evaluates the 1991-reform adding a third year in Swedish upper secondary
vocational education. One purpose with the additional year was to facilitate university
enrolment for students from vocational paths. Reduced forms are applied to estimate
the effect of a third year on three outcomes: years of upper secondary education,
university enrolment and the rate of inactivity. The results suggest positive effects on
university enrolments within six years for individuals with a three-year vocational
education, and negative effects on activity.

Essay IV evaluates adult secondary education (ASE) in Sweden. ASE offers courses at
the compulsory and upper secondary level and is aimed to give adults who lack these
types of education. Controlling for pre-programme annual earnings, the estimates
suggests that participating in adult secondary education significantly reduces the
earnings of native-born males. No effects are found for native-born females, but the
results indicate weakly significant positive effects for female immigrants.

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