A survey was conducted to study the genetic differentiation among 16 tribal groups of Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra belonging to different ethnic and linguistic affiliations. Sixteen hundred and fifteen blood samples from both sexes were tested for 5 red cell enzyme systems: ACP, ESD, PGD, GLO, LDH, and Hb pattern. Three hundred and nineteen male individuals were tested for G-6-PD enzyme deficiency. The distribution of the enzyme markers and Hb show a range of variation which are more or less within the Indian range. Case of homozygous HbSS were detected in all the tribes except 3 tribes in Orissa. Two cases of LDH Cal-1 homozygote were found in two Dravidian language speaking Orissa tribes. The X2-values for testing the homogeneity of gene frequencies indicate a non-significant heterogeneity for all alleles in the individual system. Within population diversity seems to be larger than between population diversity. The degree of over all genetic differentiation as measured by GST value is 0.0154±0.0071.