The blood group polymorphisms A1A2B0, MNSs, Rhesus, Kell and Kidd as well as the Saliva secretor system have been studied among Pangwalas of Pangi Tehsil, Transhumant Gaddis of Bharmour Sub-Tehsil Chamba District and Settled Gaddis of Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh, North India. An attempt has been made to analyse the genetic differences between the different population groups under study and to compare the results observed in Pangwalas and Gaddis with that of other population groups from Asia. The present paper is the first in the series from the Research Project entitled "Impact of Technological and Economic Development Programmes on Bio-cultural Heritage of Gaddis and Pangwalas Population Groups of Himachal Pradesh". The procject was framed after UNESCO/MAB Project Nos. 6 and 12 under UNESCO Programme on Man and Biosphere (MAB).