In this paper we examine the relationship between educational inputs and school outcomes in South Africa immediately before the end of apartheid government and, in doing so, we add to what is known about the impact of exogenous changes in school quality on child outcomes. There are three features of the South African system that are particularly salient. First, Black households were severely limited in their residential choice under apartheid. Second, funding decisions for Black schools were made centrally, by White-controlled entities on which Blacks were not represented and over which they had no control. Finally, the allocations resulted in marked disparities in average class sizes even across areas as large as magisterial districts, with some districts averaging 20 children per teacher in Black schools, and others upwards of 80 children per teacher.