The analysis aims to describe processes of demographic and epidemiological changes, as well as health status self-assessment in selected Central and Eastern European countries. Countries selected for analysis represent groups characterized by similar tendencies and specific health and demographic characteristics. Estonia respresents the Baltic states, Bulgaria – Balkan countries, and Slovakia represents countries of Central Europe. Poland is a specific country, with demographic and epidemiological characteristics similar to Slovakia, but much larger, with a high share of rural population. In Hungary, demographic processes related to the second demographic transition began much earlier and are still dynamic, and as such constitute a reference for other CEE countries. Analysis is presented in the context of medical service utilisation, impact on frequency and structure of services use. Special attention is given to those demographic and epidemiological changes that have direct impact on the frequency of medical service utilisation and, as such, determine the increase of healthcare costs. The ageing process and health status improvement are the main hypothetical determinants of healthcare cost increases, and thus they are presented in more detail. Additionally, changes in health behaviour – mainly in the utilisation of medical services – are discussed in the context of institutional changes in the healthcare sector.