Peace process in Colombia; Problems and prospects

Type Working Paper
Title Peace process in Colombia; Problems and prospects
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2012
The present-day Republic of Colombia emerged from the collapse of “Gran Colombia” or “Great Colombia” in 1830 and Colombia got independence from Spain in 20, July 1810.1Colombia measures 1,138,910 square kilometers (including insular possession bodies of water), located in northern south America, bordered by Panama, Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador ,Peru ,Caribbean sea to north and north pacific ocean to the west.2The 2005 census reported Colombia’s population is 42,888,592, evolved from multiethnic population, consisting of Mestizo 49 percent, White 37 percent, Afro-Colombian black 10.5 percent and Amerindian population for 3.4 percent.3The 90 percent people are Roman Catholic.4Colombia has two traditional parties, the liberals and the conservatives, both of the parties competed for power and have rotated as governing party.5Colombia also maintained its status as world’s principal cocaine-refining nation, supplying some 80 percent (220 metric tons) of the total cocaine imports (approximately 300 metric tons) smuggled into United States in 1999.6A study by Colombia’s national association of financial institutions (ANIF) reported that worldwide street sales of Colombian cocaine, heroin and marijuana totaled US $ 46 billion in 1999.7The Colombia faces the internal Guerrilla war, The Largest Guerrilla forces of Colombia is FARC (Revolutionary Armed forces of Colombia) and ELN (National Liberation Army Colombia).8 FARC is the Marxist-Leninist armed forces in Colombia engaged with armed conflicts with the government forces.9 Colombia’s civil war is the lengthiest armed conflict in the western hemisphere.10 The four decades of war waged by Marxist revolutionaries, drug cartels and the government.11In the bloody struggle, all groups have committed serious human rights violations, and the amnesty international estimated 70,000 people have been killed in the past 20 years.12The majority of casualties of the war were unarmed civilians, and the violence and fear for one’s life have prompted massive (internal and cross) displacement.

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