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Type Journal Article - Journal of the Egyptian Veterinary Medical Association
Title Identified sources of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection in household poultry in Egypt
Volume 74
Issue 1
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2014
Page numbers 65-75
URL http://www.evmalife.org/uploads/1/3/7/4/13748112/identified_sources_of_highly_pathogenic_avian_influ​enza_h5n1_infection_in_household_poultry_in_egypt.pdf
The first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 subtype of
influenza A virus in Egypt was reported in poultry in February 2006. Since then, the country
is experiencing outbreaks of HPAI. To date over 2395 outbreaks in poultry and 173 human
infections with 57 fatalities have been reported in several governorates in Egypt. Entrenched
A/H5N1 has thus caused economic and public health threats and its control require good
quality epidemiological information that can support the decision makers in improving the
disease control plans. The objective of this study is to describe the identified mechanisms of
HPAI introduction into household poultry sector in Egypt in order to support the decision
makers in improving the risk-based control strategies. Out of the 263 confirmed HPAI
outbreaks, the investigation was successfully completed to identify the probable means of AI
introduction and dissemination for 117 (44.4%) outbreaks. 1.7% (n=2) index cases were
attributed to direct and indirect contact with thousands of dead commercial broiler chickens
thrown nearby the poultry households along water canal, while 98.2%(n=115) index cases
were attributed to buying or receiving infected birds, of them 87.2% (n=90) were at young
stage that were mainly produced in nursery farms. To reduce the incidence of HPAI in
household sector, a strategic plan should be designed to include a package of surveillance,
biosecurity, vaccination and communication programs for the nursery farms, this will
represent a mitigation measures for a factor representing around 75% of the identified sources
of HPAI outbreaks in household sector.

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