Sand dunes encroachment is a challenge that faces land development in North African countries. Movement of these dunes threatens cultivated lands, roads, and urban settlements. Geographic information system (GIS) provides a tool for cartographic modeling of risk of sand dunes encroachment. This study modeled the potential risk of sand dunes encroachment related to their terrain characteristics in the Western Desert of Egypt. The Food and Agricultural Organization's land cover map of Egypt derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper was used to locate the sand dunes bodies. Four parameters were derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, namely the elevation, slope, aspect, and relative moisture index. Ten-year average data for prevalent wind direction and speed were used. A GIS cartographic model was applied using the six parameters as criteria maps. The output is a sand dunes risk index map which was overlaid with the existing urban features. The result identified those urban features vulnerable to sand dunes encroachment risk. The model was verified using a high-resolution image. Such a risk map is essential for land use planning and environmental management.