The jatropha trees oil containing seeds can be used for biofuel. There are a lot of discussions about whether a Jatropha production and utility can be beneficial for a sustainable development in the developing countries, or if it’s just another cash crop for oil-export to the developed countries biofuel use. The content of this thesis is a determination of the possible livelihood impacts from a jatropha production, through a case in Zambia where 25.000 small-scale farmers are involved in a jatropha production, aiming at a domestic sale of biofuel from the investment company Marli Investment. The analysis in the thesis is build up around different livelihood indicators such as, natural, social, economic and human assets; which simultaneously facilitate in showing how the livelihood of the small-scale farmers could get inflicted – positive as negative from a jatropha production. The findings in the analysis and the general knowledge about cultivation, use and production of the jatropha tree, drawn up recommendations for how a jatropha production can be started with benefits for the local livelihood of small-scale farmers and the development in the local society.