The study had two distinctive components, namely, the quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative study investigated the factors that influence birth weight in Uganda using instrumental variable (2SLS) model. The study used the Uganda Demographic Health Survey (UDHS) data for 2006 collected by Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS). The findings suggest that birth weight is positively and significantly influenced by the mother’s tetanus immunization status, education level, and antenatal care, but negatively influenced by mother’s smoking of cigarettes/tobacco and malaria infection. The qualitative study investigated the relationship between reproductive health services and household welfare. Specifically it examined how utilization of reproductive health services improves the health status for the mother and child, additional time created as a result of improved health, the utilization of that time in economic activities to alleviate poverty. The findings suggest that the use of reproductive health services results in improved health status of the mother and child and creation of additional time. However the utilization of this additional time on productive economic activities by women is constrained by lack of access to credit, the gender division of labour, and excessive taxation on small businesses.