Analysis of changing agricultural pattern in Jessore: Environmental and social aspects

Type Thesis or Dissertation - Ph.D
Title Analysis of changing agricultural pattern in Jessore: Environmental and social aspects
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2015
URL Raufe.pdf?sequence=1
Bangladesh is a highly populated country and majority of the population depends on agriculture. The objective of the study is to assess the changing agricultural pattern and production in last three decades in Jessore (1981-2010) which is being influenced by environment and social parameters. For this research work, the related data and information have been collected from both primary and secondary sources.
There was a massive change in agriculture pattern influenced by various parameters including soil character, rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, groundwater level, as well as availability and use of various agricultural inputs, modernization of cultivation method, improvement in transport and marketing system in last three decades. Result revealed that the soil nutrient, soil organic matter, and soil pH have been decreasing but increasing the arsenic contamination and water contamination due to over use of land, chemical fertilizers and pesticides during 1981-2010.
The results also showed that there was a significant transformation of agricultural pattern. Per unit area and yield of cereal crops such as transplanted Aus & Aman, Boro, and vegetables had been increasing gradually while decreasing the broadcast Aus, Aman and Banana. Rabi crop area is decreasing which was 0.45 ha per
household in 1981-90 and decreased 0.29 ha in 2001-10 but yield is increasing for better management and use of good seed quality. From 1981-2010, per unit yield of non cereal crops such as jute, flower and cotton has been increasing although area has been decreasing except flower. Per unit area of wheat, sugarcane and fruit has decreased but timber tree has found to be increased during this period. The forest sub sector such as commercially used lichi, mango and baukool cultivation has largely increased after 1990. Average number of date tree cultivation per household has rapidly declined which was 26 in 1981-90 and 4 in 2001-10. Unit area and yield of fish cultivation are increasing gradually which was 0.17 ha in 1981-90 and 0.48 ha in 2001-10. Livestock raising has been increasing with change of purposes, from domestic to commercial and which was 2873 million in 1984 and 3853 million in 2001-10. Use of local seed in cultivating all the cereal and non-cereal crops has been decreasing gradually. Increase yield per unit of land has risen for improved water control, better soil preparation, better seed quality and better harvesting and post- harvesting processing. Therefore, these practices have great influenced increasing in the cropping intensity in Jessore from 168% to 185% in 1984 and 2008 respectively. Cost of cultivation has reduced for use of modern appliances.
Educational status, age and gender of farmers, secondary occupation, training on agriculture from GoB and NGO influenced the agricultural pattern in last three decades in Jessore. Opportunity to receive credit from GoB and NGO has increased during 1981-2010. Receiving training on agriculture has improved farmer’s quality to utilize input materials optimally. Marketing system, supply chain linking, transport management and communication have remarkably changed. The farmer has got fair price of their products which has great influence on changing agricultural pattern.
Use of chemical fertilizer has increased from 14% to 95% while organic fertilizers has decreased from 86% to 5% from 1981-1990 to 2001-10 respectively. For irrigation purpose, traditional methods are replaced by modern methods over decades. Swallow tubewell and deep tubewell were used by 10% and 3% household in 1981-90 and 85% and 8% in 2001-10 respectively. Modern cultivation method has become popular and traditional method has declined gradually. Pesticide use has been increasing rapidly which was 12% in 1981-90 and then 51% in 2001-10.
The overall transport system including roads and vehicle has developed in Jessore like other places of Bangladesh. Pickup, truck, trolley and nocimon have become popular transport to the farmers to carry agriculture products instead of traditional vehicles. Uses of pickup and truck were absent in 1981-90 and it was 57% and 49% in 2001-10 respectively. Bullcart and headload have declined rapidly in the study area which was 94% and 90% in 1981-90 and reduced to 3% and 1% in 2001-10 respectively.
Therefore, the present study concluded that agricultural pattern in Jessore has changed over period for multi factorial elements including environmental aspects such as soil nutrients, rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, groundwater; and social aspects such as education level, getting training on agriculture by the farmer and availability and use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides, transport and marketing system, communication and credit facilities.

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