A survey was conducted to monitor the current status of iodine deficiency disorders in children aged 6-12 years and women aged 15-44 years in Bangladesh as measured by goitre prevalence and urinary iodine excretion. Conducted between September 2004 and March 2005, the survey followed a stratified multistage cluster sampling design to provide nationally representative data, with self-weighted rural-urban disaggregation. A total of 7233 children and 6408 women were examined for goitre and 4848 urine samples (2447 from children and 2401 from women) were analyzed for iodine. In addition, 5321 household salt samples were analyzed for iodine. In children, the total goitre rate (TGR) was 6.2%, compared to 49.9% in 1993 and the TGR among women was 11.7%, while in 1993 it was 55.6%. Prevalence of iodine deficiency (Urinary Iodine Excretion <100 µg/L) was 33.8% in children and 38.6% in women (compared to 71.0% and 70.2%, respectively in 1993). Iodine nutrition status in urban areas was considerably better than in rural areas. There was a clear inverse relationship between iodine deficiency and the coverage of households using adequately iodized salt (=15 ppm). The findings of the survey revealed that Bangladesh has achieved a commendable progress in reducing goitre rates and iodine deficiency among children and women ever since the universal salt iodization programme was instituted 10 years ago. However, physiological iodine deficiency still persists among more than one-third of children and women, which points to the need for all stakeholders to redouble their efforts in achieving universal salt iodization.