Cambodia is a less developed country with a rapidly growing population, estimated at 14 million people. The population is becoming increasingly urbanized, resulting more waste generation, concentrated in urban areas. Cambodia does not have a specific definition of municipal solid waste in its policies or laws yet. This study aims to identify and understand the existing municipal solid waste management situation in Cambodia. The study employs a combination of exploring existing documentation, qualitative data analyses and reconnaissance studies. The key findings are presented in the following: (1) the amount of waste generated in Cambodia is approximately 6,818,000 tons/year of waste, based on a figure of 0.487 kg per capita per day. The percentage of the organic waste ranges between 60 and 80 % while plastic waste is about 15 %. (2) The waste collection and transportation is contracted to private companies, under the supervision of local authorities and technical line agencies, leading to a focus on profits rather environmental and public health concerns. Waste collected and transported to dump sites in urban areas was approximately 317,550 tons in 2004, increasing to 518,053 tons in 2008 and 630,679 tons in 2011. (3) Existing dumpsites are very poor quality with limited technical design, leading to environmental and social problems. (4) Lack of law enforcement and cooperation is commonplace. (5) Approximately 86 tons per day of material is recycled, largely informally with recyclable collected at source and from the final disposal point. In Phnom Penh the collected recyclables are estimated to reach 39.7 tons/day, or 4.3 % of the total waste generated in the city. Although waste management legislation is in force, there is room for improvement in its enforcement and raising awareness of its existence.