While Tanzania has been at the forefront of creating a positive legal framework and political context for gender equality, certain legal, regulatory, and administrative barriers still hinder women's full participation in private sector development. This report analyzes these barriers and makes recommendations for needed change, to ensure women's full contribution to private sector development and economic growth in Tanzania. Building on intensive stakeholder consultations and the findings of numerous studies, notably the MKURABITA diagnostic and the 2003/4 Investment Climate Assessments for Tanzania and Zanzibar, this report examines these gender-related barriers to growth and investment. It highlights legal and administrative constraints that have a disproportionately negative effect on female-headed businesses, and makes recommendations for needed reforms. Addressing these issues would not only help unlock the full economic potential of women, but would help improve the environment for all businesses in Tanzania. While Tanzania's economic growth has been strong, this report finds that if the country were to bring female secondary schooling and female total years of schooling to the same level as now enjoyed by males, this could produce up to an additional annual percentage point of growth - a valuable contribution to achieving the 6-8 percent annual growth targets of the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP or MKUKUTA).