Lesotho is a country whose lowest point is 1,000 m above sea level. It is completely surrounded by the Republic of South Africa. Its extraordinary geographical position, relief and latitude contribute to its particular biophysical and socio-economic landscape. These features simultaneously affect and are affected by land-use choices and decisions. Historical and socio-political contexts are among other important factors in the human-environment interrelationship. This Chapter examines specific environmental, social, political and economic characteristics of Lesotho with reference to land-use and landscape changes in the country, highlighting the Lowland region. It outlines the macro and micro level context within which the case study will take place.