The fifth Population Census of Pakistan was conducted during 2-18 March, 1998. The population reported in this census was 130.58 million, with an average rate of growth of 2.61 percent per annum for the intercensal period of 1981-1998. The fifth census was due in March 1991 but was held during March 1998 due to the tendency of over-reporting among provinces at the time of housing census, which was undertaken as a preparatory step to the main population census. Several attempts were made between March 1991 and March 1998 and each time the census had to be postponed for the same reason. After all, the housing and population censuses were held with the assistance of military personnel who were checking the validity of members of each household independently. This dual approach not only helped preventing over-enumeration but also ensured maximum accuracy. This one hundred percent check eliminated the need for a post-enumeration check through a post-enumeration sample survey, which has its own limitations, aside from the time lag and sampling errors. The results of the census showed that its estimates of population for the country and its provinces/areas were very close to the estimates made in the projections by national experts in 1986. Based on the history of the Population Welfare Programme and other developments, an attempt has been made to estimate the rate of growth and population size for the years 1977 to 1997. Major developments in family planning have been achieved during the Seventh and the Eighth Five-Year Plans, from 1988-98, and there had a significant effect in lowering the rate of growth.