Pakistan's most recent population census was conducted in September 1972. The population was 64.9 million persons, compared with 42.9 million in 1961. The average annual intercensal growth rate was estimated as 3.0%. In an effort to improve the quality of the data and reduce the time between collection and publication of results, several changes were introduced in the 1972 census. The 1972 census was the 1st to use sampling methods and to collect detailed data on housing and population characteristics. It was also the 1st census in which evaluation of the results was scientifically planned and executed under the supervision and direction of an independent agency. There were 3 phases to the 1972 census: the household listing, the "big count," and the Housing, Economic and Demographic Survey. Design of the questionnaire and preparation of enumerator instructions were initiated in early 1970. Operations manuals and training materials were prepared for enumerators and supervisors. A pretest of the questionnaire was conducted in March 1970 in several areas. It tested the census concepts and definitions and the procedure for household listing and numbering, public reaction to questions, and the method of recording the responses. A 2% sample in rural areas and a 5% sample in urban ares produced a total of 300,000 sample households to be used in the Housing, Economic, and Demographic Survey conducted about a year following the census. Both city and town maps were used to ensure complete coverage of urban areas. Enumeration was conducted by personal interview. Data processing procedures are reviewed, terms are defined, and publications and tabulations are listed.