This chapter profiles the traditional view of childhood as per Indian scriptures. It moves on to then present the demographic profile of children in India, with the current infant mortality rate, under 5 mortality rate, nutrition status, health profile of children, sex ratio and maternal and girl child indicators. Statistics related to diarrhoea, immunisation, breast-feeding, infant and child survival are quoted and discussed. Reasons for falling child sex ratio as well as high IMR amongst others, are put across. NFHS 3 and Census 2011 figures are quoted. The Indian indicators are pitted against Human Development Index and Millennium Development Goals. Various articles related to children in the Constitution of India are put together in this chapter. Policy initiatives by the government of India for the benefit of children are briefly presented. There is one whole section devoted to discuss the role of non-government organisations in social development, wherein NGOs are classified and their merits and demerits are discussed.