Low- and middle-income countries have a higher burden of fatal and non-fatal injuries. The lack of evidence-based information hampers efforts for injury prevention. The aim of this study was to calculate non-fatal injury incidence rates and to investigate causes and risk factors for non-fatal injuries in Khartoum state. Information was gathered in a community-based survey using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. Methods of data collection were face-to-face interviews during October and November 2010. The total number of individuals included was 5661, residing in 973 households. The overall injury incidence rate was 82.0/1000 person-years-at-risk. The three leading causes were falls, mechanical forces and road traffic crashes. Low socio-economic status was a risk factor for injuries in urban areas. Males had a significantly higher risk of being injured in both urban and rural areas. Our findings can contribute to the planning of prevention programmes.