Livestock is not only an important source of food and income, but also the sign of assets in rural areas for poor people. In order to estimate how social-economic factors influence livestock production and income with the help of empirical model, the authors use the data collected form 360 household samples selected from 24 villages of 6 localities in White Nile State of Sudan. The result found that weight of animal feed and labor-cost have significantly influenced the total livestock production and income trend in the study area. Furthermore, social factors (gender, age, education level and off-farm activities of household head; family labor, family size and number of children) have been confirmed to influence livestock production or income at different levels. Finally, based on the results of this study, it is strongly suggested that stakeholders should look forward to the livestock production system in rural White Nile State to have clear strategies and good policies.