Urbanisation and long-lasting civil wars and conflict mean that the demographic pattern in Sudan is changing drastically. Nevertheless, 60%-80% of Sudanese engage in subsistence agriculture. Agriculture remains a crucial sector in the economy as a major source of raw materials, food and foreign exchange. It employs the majority of the labour force, and serves as a potential vehicle for diversifying the economy. However, no rigorous studies have explained productivity in this sector in relation to food security. The literature reveals the pervasive inefficiency of Sudanese farmers and largescale state-owned schemes, such as Gezira Scheme, which produce significantly below their thresholds. Many studies have found that their output levels are less than optimal. This is because of recurrent drought, land degradation, inefficient irrigation infrastructure and inconsistent agricultural policies. The literature also shows that fluctuations in agricultural productivity happen because of fluctuating weather patterns. The situation has worsened because agriculture in particular has been neglected since the advent of oil production in the early 2000s. Moreover, Sudan’s agricultural growth has been unbalanced, with the majority of irrigated agriculture concentrated in the Centre and a huge disparity in development indicators between the best- and worst-performing regions. Thus, studies show that the vast majority of Sudanese are reported to be food insecure, especially internally displaced persons (IDPs) and in conflict regions such as Darfur, Kordofan and other regions.