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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - International journal of cardiology
Title Correlation of regional cardiovascular disease mortality in India with lifestyle and nutritional factors
Author(s)
Volume 108
Issue 3
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2006
Page numbers 291-300
URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15978684
Abstract
Objective
There is a wide disparity in prevalence and cardiovascular disease mortality in different Indian states. To determine significance of various nutritional factors and other lifestyle variables in explaining this difference in cardiovascular disease mortality we performed an analysis.

Methods and results
Mortality data were obtained from the Registrar General of India. In 1998 the annual death rate for India was 840 / 100,000 population. Cardiovascular diseases contribute to 27% of these deaths and its crude mortality rate was 227 / 100,000. Major differences in cardiovascular disease mortality rates in different Indian states were reported varying from 75–100 in sub-Himalayan states of Nagaland, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim to a high of 360–430 in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Goa. Lifestyle data were obtained from national surveys conducted by the government of India. The second National Family Health Survey (26 states, 92,447 households, 301,984 adults) conducted in 1998–1999 reported on various demographic and lifestyle variables and India Nutrition Profile Study reported dietary intake of 177,841 adults (18 states, 75,229 men, 102,612 women). Cardiovascular disease mortality rates were correlated with smoking, literacy levels, prevalence of stunted growth at 3-years (as marker of fetal undernutrition), adult mean body mass index, prevalence of overweight and obesity, dietary consumption of calories, cereals and pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots, tubers and other vegetables, milk and milk products, fats and oils, and sugar and jaggery. As a major confounder in different states is poverty, all the partial correlation coefficients were adjusted for illiteracy, fertility rate and infant mortality rate. There was a significant positive correlation of cardiovascular disease mortality with prevalence of obesity (R = 0.37) and dietary consumption of fats (R = 0.67), milk and its products (R = 0.27) and sugars (R = 0.51) and negative correlation with green leafy vegetable intake (R = - 0.42) (p < 0.05).

Conclusions
There are large disparities in cardiovascular disease mortality in different Indian states. This can be epidemiologically explained by difference in dietary consumption of fats, milk, sugar and green-leafy vegetables and prevalence of obesity.

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