Coconut is a major commercial crop of Sri Lanka. Growing a number of other crops in association with coconuts is a widespread practice in all coconut-growing areas of the country. The rationale for the practice is that other crops can profitably be grown between or under the coconuts during the different growth stages of the palms and thus the overall productivity of the land under this long-duration crop can substantially be increased. The paper gives a concise account of the practice in Sri Lanka indicating the crops most commonly grown as intercrops, arrangement of different crops and early research results on the productivity of the intercrops and their effect on coconuts. Adequate supplies of water and labour are the two major inputs needed for the success of the system. Drought, lack of funds, price instability, lack of technical know-how on intercrop management and problems of timely availability of inputs are the major constraints experienced by farmers in expanding intercropping. Research on both biological and socio-economic aspects is needed to overcome these constraints and extend this potentially attractive system.