Dietary intake of adult women in South Africa and Nigeria with a focus on the use of spreads

Type Report
Title Dietary intake of adult women in South Africa and Nigeria with a focus on the use of spreads
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2012
URL intake of adult women in SA and​Nigeria.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
This study examined nutrient intake, dietary habits, and the weight status of adult women
in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria, with a focus on breakfast intake and the use of
spreads on bread. Dietary intake from South African women was based on secondary
data analysis of dietary studies which were already undertaken previously (n=992), and
those from the National Food Consumption Survey and the South African Demographic
and Health Study. A sample of 1008 women was randomly selected from all adult women
in Kenya, as a representative sample of four districts. Data from Nigeria came from a
national survey undertaken in 2003.a
In all three studies, fieldworkers were trained to do
personal interviews using specific questionnaires with each participant at their homes,
namely a socio-demographic questionnaire, and a 24-hour recall questionnaire.
Furthermore, each participant was weighed and waist and hip circumferences were
measured. Reliability of the 24-hour recalls in Kenya were checked by means of repeated
interviews on a sub-sample of 10% of the participants (n=104).
Overall, South African women had an energy intake of 7239 kJ, carbohydrate intake of
244.5 g, protein intake of 61.6 g and a fat intake of 46.6 g while this was 6967 kJ,
231.1 g, 42.4 g and 62.3 g, respectively, in Kenyans. Generally, South African
macronutrient and mineral intakes were higher than those of Kenyans were, with the
exception of fat, saturated fat and iron intake. Fat intake as a percentage of total energy
intake was greater in Kenya (33.1%) compared to that in South Africa (22.9%). Dietary
data for South Africa showed that calcium, iron, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin D were
the most deficient in the diet. In Kenya, the most deficient nutrients were also calcium,
vitamin B6, niacin, vitamin D, and folate; additionally niacin, thiamine and riboflavin
intakes were low.

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