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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS)
Title Low Female Labour Participation in Pakistan: Causes and Consequences
Author(s)
Volume 32
Issue 1
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2013
Page numbers 163-178
URL http://www.bzu.edu.pk/PJSS/Vol33No12013/PJSS-Vol33-No1-14.pdf
Abstract
Participation in labour market is an important strategy for enhancing women’s empowerment and related bargaining power within and outside the household, Agarwal (1994, 2002), UNDP (2003). However, a favourable participation of women in Pakistan is constrained by their lack of skill, education, and training beside socio-cultural norms. Moreover, women also carry the double burden of unpaid household work and the paid workload. At the same time, it is also believed that women enjoy a sense of independence and self-confidence by working for an income. Sen (2001), and Agarwal (2001, 2002), argue that through employment and other income-generating activities women’s economic position improves and their status strengthens within the household.

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