A stratified goitre survey was conducted on 35635 schoolchildren and 19 158 household members in all Regions of Ethiopia except Eritrea and Tigrai. The gross goitre prevalence (mean of male and female values) among schoolchildren and household members was 30.6 and 18.7% respectively, while that of visible goitre was 1.6 and 3.2% respectively. Prevalence was higher in females (27.3% in household members and 36.1 % in schoolchildren) than in males (10.1 % in household members and 25.1 % in schoolchildren) and increased with age more in females than in males. The prevalence rates at higher altitudes were higher than those at lower altitudes in both schoolchildren and household members. Using an epidemiological model the consequences of iodine deficiency, including cretinism and maternal wastage, have been estimated.