Using data from a cross-sectional nutrition survey conducted in rural Ethiopia between March and April 1992, roughly a year after the end of one of the longest civil wars in modern human history, this study attempts to document the magnitude and correlates of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. Findings from the study reveal that, at the time of the survey, 59% of children in the country were exposed to long-term or chronic undernutrition (stunted); about 4% were suffering from acute problems (wasted); and about the same proportion were both stunted and wasted. Less than a third of the country's children had normal growth. The logistic–binomial regression results demonstrated the existence of significant clustering of risks of undernutrition within areas of residence and notable differentials by age of child, duration of breast-feeding, age at introduction of supplementary foods and number of under-five siblings. Significant variations were also noted by age of household head, per capita land holding, religious affiliation and prevalence of endemic diseases in an area.