This study sought to explore the relationship between anemia in children and levels of five minerals in blood. A sample consisted of 242 normal and 304 anemic children paired by sex and age. Hematological parameters were assessed using the Sysmex xs-800i hematology analyzer. Levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca) were measured by polarographic analysis. Differences in these elements between the anemic and normal groups were compared by ANOVA. Relationships between Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Hb levels were tested by Pearson’s correlation analysis. The Mg level (1.51?±?0.30 mmol/L) of the moderately anemic group (=90 g/L) was significantly higher than that (1.36?±?0.30 mmol/L) of the mildly anemic (90 g/L =Hb <110 g/L) and normal groups (1.31?±?0.30 mmol/L) (p?0.05). The rate of moderate anemia (13.7 %) in the higher Mg group (Mg >1.57 mmol/L) was higher than that (5.3 %) of the lower Mg group (Mg =1.57 mmol/L) (p?0.01). The rate of moderate anemia (12.8 %) in the lower Fe group (=78.4 umol/L) was higher than that (6.2 %) of the higher Fe group (>78.4 umol/L) (p?0.05). Hemoglobin was inversely correlated with Mg levels in the anemic group (p?0.05). These results indicate that blood levels of Mg and Fe were correlated with anemic children aged 6 months to 3 years. To prevent and treat anemia better, a combination of the levels of Hb, Mg, and Fe in whole blood is required.