Objective: To identify gaps in epidemiologic and HIV service coverage data for key populations (KP), including men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), people who inject drugs (PWID), and transgender persons, in 8 West and Central Africa countries: Cameroon, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, and Nigeria. Methods: A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed literature was conducted using PubMed and MEDLINE. This search was supplemented by an additional search of relevant non–peer-reviewed, or gray, literature. Available data on HIV prevalence, KP size estimates, HIV prevention service targets, and HIV prevention service coverage, including the availability of population-specific minimum packages of services, were included in the review. Results: No data for transgender persons were found. HIV prevalence data and size estimates were more frequently available for FSW, followed by MSM. Only 2 countries (Ghana and Nigeria) had both KP size estimates and HIV prevalence data for PWID. The degree to which HIV prevention service targets were adopted was highly variable across the selected countries, and the collection of relevant HIV prevention service coverage data for those targets that were identified was inconsistent. Population-specific minimum packages of services were identified in 3 countries (Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Nigeria), although only Ghana and Nigeria included services for PWID. Conclusions: Epidemiologic and HIV prevention service data for FSW, MSM, PWID, and transgender persons remain sparse, and these KP are inconsistently accounted for in-service delivery and nationally endorsed minimum packages of HIV services in West and Central Africa. The strengthening of data collection and reporting to consistently include KP and the inclusion of that data in national planning is imperative for effectively addressing the HIV epidemic.