|Type||Journal Article - PloS One|
|Title||Safety and Effectiveness of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy during the First Year of Treatment in HIV-1 Infected Rwandan Children: A Prospective Study|
With increased availability of paediatric combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in resource limited settings, cART outcomes and factors associated with outcomes should be assessed.
HIV-infected children <15 years of age, initiating cART in Kigali, Rwanda, were followed for 18 months. Prospective clinical and laboratory assessments included weight-for-age (WAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) z-scores, complete blood cell count, liver transaminases, creatinine and lipid profiles, CD4 T-cell count/percent, and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration. Clinical success was defined as WAZ and WAZ >-2, immunological success as CD4 cells =500/mm3 and =25% for respectively children over 5 years and under 5 years, and virological success as a plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration <40 copies/mL.
Between March 2008 and December 2009, 123 HIV-infected children were included. The median (interquartile (IQR) age at cART initiation was 7.4 (3.2, 11.5) years; 40% were <5 years and 54% were female. Mean (95% confidence interval (95%CI)) HAZ and WAZ at baseline were -2.01 (-2.23, -1.80) and -1.73 (-1.95, -1.50) respectively and rose to -1.75 (-1.98, -1.51) and -1.17 (-1.38, -0.96) after 12 months of cART. The median (IQR) CD4 T-cell values for children <5 and =5 years of age were 20% (13, 28) and 337 (236, 484) cells/mm3respectively, and increased to 36% (28, 41) and 620 (375, 880) cells/mm3. After 12 months of cART, 24% of children had a detectable viral load, including 16% with virological failure (HIV-RNA>1000 c/mL). Older age at cART initiation, poor adherence, and exposure to antiretrovirals around birth were associated with virological failure. A third (33%) of children had side effects (by self-report or clinical assessment), but only 9% experienced a severe side effect requiring a cART regimen change.
cART in Rwandan HIV-infected children was successful but success might be improved further by initiating cART as early as possible, optimizing adherence and optimizing management of side effects.
|»||Rwanda - Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis and Nutrition Survey 2012|