In 1998, circulation of the Rift Valley Fever (RVF) virus was revealed in Diawara by detection of IgM antibodies in sheep and isolation of the virus from mosquitoes caught outside a village. A seroprevalence study was carried out. Finger-prick blood samples, individual and collective details were obtained. One thousand five hundred twenty people (6 months - 83 years) were included. Overall prevalence in this group was approximately 5.2%. The prevalence in infants (6 months-2 years) was 8.5%. Age, gender, contact with a pond, presence of sheep, and abortion among sheep, and individual or collective travel history were not statistically associated with prevalence. Prevalence increased significantly when the distance to a small ravine, located in the middle of the village, decreased. The results suggest a low, recent, not endemic circulation of the virus. Culex quinquefasciatus was captured near the ravine. This mosquito, similar to Culex pipiens, can play a similar role in human-to-human transmission of the RVF virus.