Tourism is one of the most important sectors of the global economy, given its contribution as the main generator of jobs and sustainable development path for developing countries. Many experts consider this sector as one of the sectors with the greatest potential to deliver internationally development and economic growth. Thus, tourism can be an important driver of economic growth and prosperity, especially in emerging economies, and a key element in reducing poverty and regional disparities. Despite its potential contribution to economic growth, development of the tourism sector may be hampered by a number of economic and legal barriers that can affect its competitiveness. In this context, the World Economic Forum proposes, through the Tourism Competitiveness Index (TCI), in addition to a methodology for identifying key factors that contribute to increasing the competitiveness of tourism, also tools for analysis and evaluation of these factors. Thus, this study aims at analyzing the determinants underlying TCI in terms of two directly competing states, Romania and Bulgaria, to highlight the positive effects through the benefits of the analyzed markets, in terms of competitiveness in tourism sector. The purpose of this analysis is to provide some answers, especially from the perspective of the necessity of strategies that should be adopted on market competitiveness in the two countries and the exposure of the factors that could explain the different performance of the two national economies in the tourism sector.