How does civil war violence affect female political participation? Using rich micro-level data, I investigate the legacies of Peru’s Shining Path insurgency on women’s engagement in local politics. Based on an original data set of candidates running for local councilors, and a difference-in-differences research design, I show that electoral gender quotas have been more successful in municipalities exposed to the insurgency than in those that remained unaffected, other things equal. However, while larger effects are observed in areas that were controlled by the insurgents, the positive effects of violence on female political participation are reversed in areas affected by sexual violence (mostly perpetrated by state forces), which underscores how different types of violence exert starkly divergent effects. These findings are not explained by structural changes induced by the conflict (e.g., changes in sex ratios). Instead, the evidence points to behavioral adjustments (coping strategies) linked to wartime experiences. Finally, I provide evidence that these effects persist across generations.