Nursing caries is one of the most severe dental problemsin children. Early diagnosis of this devastatingdisease pattern is difficult, because children at an ageof one to two years often do not visit a dentist. Dataon the prevalence of nursing caries in Jordan and manydeveloping countries are not available. In this studythe prevalence of nursing caries was determined in 424 Jordanian-Arab children drawn from private nurseryschools and public orphanages. An additional eightysixchildren ages 4-4.5 years, were examined for cariesfreestatus. A questionnaire was devised to assess feeding/dietary habits and dental health behavior. The results showed the following: The overall prevalence of nursing caries in thepresent sample was 5.4 percent. An additional 5.9 percent had incipient caries lesions in the maxillaryincisors. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of nursing caries between gender or between nursery and orphanage children. Caries incidence increased significantly with age,shown by the fact that the proportion of cariesfreechildren decreased from 87 percent at age oftwelve to twenty-three months to 48 percent atan age of forty-eight to fifty-four months. The addition of sugar to milk, prolonged bottle and breast-feeding, between-meal sweet snacks, neglected dental care, and lack of education and information appear to be the most important etiological factors. The caries experience in Jordanian children is well below the global goal of the WHO for the year 2000. This calls for oral health education and dietary instruction starting with the expectant parents as well as the implementation of preventive measures.