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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - Transboundary and emerging diseases
Title Household financial status and gender perspectives in determining the financial impact of Foot and Mouth Disease in Lao PDR
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2014
URL https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Peter_Windsor/publication/266323138_Household_Financial_Status_​and_Gender_Perspectives_in_Determining_the_Financial_Impact_of_Foot_and_Mouth_Disease_in_Lao_PDR/lin​ks/545418790cf2bccc490b2b17.pdf
The socioeconomic impacts of foot and mouth disease (FMD) during 2011–12
outbreaks on large ruminant smallholders in Laos were investigated, including
examination of data on gender, household financial status and farmer husbandry
practices. A mix of participatory tools and survey questionnaires at the village and
household level, respectively, were conducted, involving individual farmer interviews
(n = 124) and group meetings with village elders to establish criteria for
classification of household financial status as being ‘poor, medium or well off’
according to rice sufficiency, assets and household incomes. FMD-attributable
financial losses were determined by inclusion of losses due to: mortality, morbidity
and costs of treatments. The estimated mean financial losses due to FMD were
USD 436 (92) in the ‘poor’ and USD 949 (76) in the ‘well off’ household categories
(P < 0.001), being 128% and 49% of income from the sale of large ruminants,
respectively. Variation in financial losses reflected differences in morbidity,
farmer husbandry practices including frequency of observation of animals and
thus recognition of FMD and choice of treatments. Of concern were adverse
financial impacts of treatment especially where antibiotics were used; delays in
reporting of FMD cases after observation of signs (mean of 2 days); admission
that 10% of farmers had sold FMD-affected livestock; and that 22% of respondents
claimed their large ruminants were cared for by females. The findings con-
firm that FMD has the most severe financial impact on poorer households and
that females have a significant role in large ruminant production. It is recommended
that livestock extension activities promote the benefits of prevention
rather than treatment for FMD and encourage participation of women in biosecurity
and disease risk management interventions including rapid reporting and
regulatory compliance, particularly with animal movement controls and other
biosecurity practices that reduce the negative impacts of FMD on regional food
security and poverty reduction in rural communities.

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