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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - International urology and nephrology
Title The demographic profile of urolithiasis in Iran: a nationwide epidemiologic study
Volume 42
Issue 1
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2010
Page numbers 119-126
URL https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ali_Khoshdel/publication/26287731_The_demographic_profile_of_ur​olithiasis_in_Iran_a_nationwide_epidemiologic_study/links/0deec5230a9cea5509000000.pdf
Objective The marked variations in urinary stone
disease prevalence by age, gender, race, and geographic
location may provide clues to their etiology
and prevention. We investigated the demographic
profile of urolithiasis across Iran to draw out implications
for national healthcare policies.
Materials and methods In a nationwide multi-center
epidemiologic study from September 2006 to August
2007, a multi-stage stratified sampling was taken in
12 ecologic zones across Iran during four seasons.
6,089 imaging-proven cases were identified out of
117,956 referrals to the radiologic centers. The
demographic characteristics of positive cases were
determined by a detailed questionnaire. Target population
characteristics were derived from the most
recent formal national census (2006).
Results Male-to-female ratio was 1.38 (male: 58%,
female: 42%). Uneducated people ratio was signifi-
cantly greater among stone formers. (Mean difference
= 10.4%, 95% CI = 9–12%).Mean age at
presentation was 41.5 years ± 16.3 and the peak incidence
range was between 55 and 65 years. The most
frequent co-existence diseases were hypertension
(15.8%) and diabetes (11.4%). It ranged from 2.8 to
21.3 for diabetes and 6.1 to 30.4 for hypertension
compared to 1 to 4.2% and 4 to 7.7, respectively, in the
general population. Surprisingly, the number of current
smokers among stone formers was significantly less
than the general population. BMI failed to show a
significant correlation.
Conclusions The putative risk factors for urinary
stone disease were male gender, hypertension, diabetes
mellitus, and lack of education. Preventive
strategies based on indigenous demographic data may
have a role in public healthcare policies.

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