This paper, part of the final report on the 1999 Romanian Reproductive Health Survey, presents estimates of the unmet need for modern contraception within the country. Overall, the survey found that about one out of every two women (52%) had a potential demand for contraception. The proportion of men representing the potential demand for family planning services was higher than that of women, partly because a smaller proportion of men than women reported that they never had intercourse. In addition, a greater proportion of men than women had an unmet need for a modern method of contraception. According to respondents' fertility preferences, both met and unmet need for limiting were higher than met and unmet need for spacing, among either women or men. Among women and men in some type of union, contraceptive use or limiting was nearly three times more prevalent than use for spacing. Similarly, the unmet need for limiting births is almost three times higher than the unmet need for spacing births.