In a globalized world, international evaluations of students´ performance influence political and economical plans. However, the perspectives which support those studies do not consider specific aspects which can provide different interpretations to students´ responses. In this paper we discuss data from the 2003 results for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We identified that survey items were elaborated only from the mathematical literacy point of view; therefore there is no explicit consideration to statistical literacy as component to be evaluated. In order to discuss this aspect, we present theoretical elements and an empirical analysis based on the PISA 2003 technical report which help to analyse the relationship between mathematical and statistical literacy. In the concluding remarks we emphasise the necessity to reveal statistical literacy within the PISA results.