Water quality of domestic wells in typical African communities: Case studies from Nigeria

Type Journal Article - International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
Title Water quality of domestic wells in typical African communities: Case studies from Nigeria
Volume 2
Issue 6
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2010
Page numbers 137-147
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1379429284_Adelekan.pdf
Several African communities obtain their domestic water supplies from dug wells and this study takes
Ibogun, Pakoto and Ifo communities in Ogun State, Nigeria as being typical. The objective is to assess
the quality of the water supply from these dug wells, ascertain the contamination problems that may
confront the consumers, and provide appropriate remedies. Twenty dug wells were randomly selected
in each community. Water samples from the selected dug wells were collected during July - August
2009. The samples were checked for odour, colour and taste; and through standard methods, they were
analyzed for pH, total solids, total hardness, chlorides, sulphate, nitrates, magnesium, calcium,
manganese, sodium, copper, zinc, iron and lead; total viable count, total coliform count, faecal coliform
count and faecal streptococci count. Most of the pH values of the samples were outside the
recommended range of 6.5 – 8.5 for drinking water. Predominantly, the ionic dominance pattern
observed were Na > Ca > Mg and HCO3 > Cl > SO4, indicating typical cationic characteristics and
anionic characteristics of groundwater. For total solids and total hardness, guideline values were
largely met. Levels of iron did not exceed the WHO guideline value of 0.2 mg/l for Fe in drinking water.
Mean levels of Mn measured were far in excess of the average of 0.01 mg/l for fresh water, while in
relation to the WHO guideline value of 0.4 mg/l for Mn in drinking water, the levels measured were low.
Generally, the levels of nitrates, sulphate, chlorides, magnesium, manganese and iron were moderately
high, but the WHO guidelines were not exceeded. The WHO guidelines for microbiological quality of
water were met in several cases. Matching of non-technical and techno-social remedial measures is
recommended. These include sensitization of the populace on merits of qualitative domestic hygiene
and environmental protection practices such as cleaner compounds and strict enforcement of
environmental protection laws.

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