|Type||Journal Article - Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology|
|Title||Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease in participants of the 2009 World Kidney Day screening exercise in Southwest Nigeria|
Early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors such as hypertension (HT), diabetes (DM) and proteinuria will allow prompt medical intervention, which may impact positively on kidney outcome. We took advantage of the World Kidney Day, which is intended to raise awareness and increase the detection of CKD, to screen participants for HT, DM and CKD using dipstick-positive proteinuria as a marker of CKD.
A total of 586 participants were screened for HT, DM and dipstick-positive proteinuria during the 2009 World Kidney Day at Osogbo in southwest Nigeria.
The overall prevalence of proteinuria, HT and DM in the unselected population was 2.5%, 25.9%, and 3.8%, respectively. Of participants with HT, there were more females (32.3% vs. 21.9%, p = 0.005), a higher prevalence of family history of HT (p < 0.001), older age (p < 0.001), higher mean weight (p < 0.001), higher mean body mass index (p < 0.001) and higher mean random blood sugar (p = 0.018) when compared to those without HT. However, among the 461 apparently healthy participants (asymptomatic and without history of HT, DM or CKD), the prevalence of significant dipstick-positive proteinuria, HT and DM was 2.8%, 11.1% and 2.0%, respectively. In the asymptomatic cohort, age (odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.14; p < 0.001) and sex (odds ratio, 2.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–5.95; p = 0.016) were significant risk factors associated with the presence of HT on multivariate analysis. Of participants with DM, there were more females (p = 0.032), older age (p = 0.019), higher mean body mass index (p = 0.008), higher mean systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001) and higher mean diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.011) when compared to those without DM.
Dipstick-positive proteinuria, HT and DM were common in our unselected and asymptomatic population. Public education and opportunistic screening for these risk factors of CKD will improve patient- and physician-level awareness, which in turn will ensure early detection of kidney disease.
|»||Nigeria - Population and Housing Census 2006|