Nigeria: Peace Building Through Integration and Citizenship

Type Book
Title Nigeria: Peace Building Through Integration and Citizenship
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2011
Publisher International Development Law Organization (IDLO)
URL - Peace Building Through Integration and​Citizenship.pdf
Violence has deepened in Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country and leading
petroleum producer. Continued conflicts threaten the citizens of the seventh
most populous country in the world and OPEC’s seventh leading exporter.
Nigeria’s crude oil accounts for 95 percent of Nigeria’s export earnings and
about 65 percent of its revenues. Nigeria’s other natural resources include
natural gas, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc and a unique rainforest
region said to be among the richest in Africa. The International Monetary Fund
projects 8 percent growth for the Nigerian economy in 2011.
Sharing borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the
east and Niger in the north, Nigeria has been at the crossroads of Africa since
ancient times. (Uwechue, 1991). Nigeria is a member of the Commonwealth of
Nations, although it was suspended from membership between 1995 and 1999,
following its execution of environmentalist Ken Saro-Wiwa. (Ingram, 1999). With
the country’s population of 152 million, Nigeria’s other major resource, is rich in
its cultural diversity – represented through 200 to 250 ethnic groups, each with its
own language in one of several language families. Its citizens practice African
traditional religions (paganism), Christianity and Islam. A 1963 census recorded
18.2 percent identifying as “pagans;” 34 percent as Christians; and 47 percent as
Muslims. Censuses in 1991 and 2006 however, did not survey religious affiliations;
consequently, changes in affiliation are unknown. (Ibrahim 2002) Between 1990
and 2010, Nigeria suffered numerous ethno-religious conflicts with considerable
loss of life and property. The two most serious conflict zones are the oil-rich Niger
Delta and in Plateau State, the focus of this work.

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