The abortion rate in Turkey declined from a peak of 4.5 abortions per 100 women in 1988 to 2.4 in 1998. This paper examines the extent to which the decline in abortion in Turkey can be attributed to increased use of modern contraception. Trends in abortion ratios and rates and in contraceptive use are examined among subgroups of Turkish women. The study then examines changes in the contraceptive behavior associated with abortion, changes in fertility preferences and demand for contraception, and changes in the propensity to abort unwanted pregnancies. Finally, the analysis includes a number of simulations that examine what abortion levels might be under different contraceptive use scenarios. Results indicate that the decline in abortion is associated with a decline in traditional method failure. The decline in traditional method failure is related to three factors: a shift from traditional method use to modern method use, a decline in the traditional method failure rate, and a decline in the proportion of traditional method failures that are aborted.