Sustainability issues in community seed production have emerged from economic and environmental routes, but the first approach is more common. Concerns associated with the economic route are marginality, artificiality, and poor capacity. Marginality indicates that farmers involved in community seed production mostly reside in remote areas with poor communication, transportation, and government services. Similarly, development project motivation for farmers without entrepreneurship skills to engage in seed production raises an artificiality issue. The third concern is related to the engagement of poor and smallholder farmers in seed production. The environmental concern is how to prioritize local landraces instead of modern varieties in seed production. This chapter proposes a framework for analyzing the sustainability of community seed production from the perspective of how seed producers realize the benefit and how that benefit is sustained. Household efficiency in seed production and marketing indicates economic benefit, adoption of soil conservation practices shows environmental performance, and organizational governance indicates social performance.