Iron deficiency anaemia among antenatal women in Sokoto, Nigeria

Type Journal Article - British Journal of Medical and Health Sciences
Title Iron deficiency anaemia among antenatal women in Sokoto, Nigeria
Volume 1
Issue 4
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2013
Page numbers 47-57
roblem statement: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the
single most prevalent nutritional deficiency worldwide. It is
a major public health problem particularly among pregnant
women in developing countries with adverse effects on the mother
and the newborn.
Approach: This cross-sectional and case -control study was
conducted at the antenatal clinic of Maryam Abacha Hospital Sokoto
to determine the prevalence of IDA among 55 pregnant women
(subjects) and 33 apparently healthy non-pregnant women (controls).
The mean age and range of subjects was 33.25 ± 11.50 and 18-40
years respectively.
Results: The mean values of the haematology and anaemia –related
parameters among the pregnant subjects were; Haemoglobin (10.14 ±
1.45 g/dL), PCV (30.567± 4.492%), SI (153.55 ± 66.061µg/dl), TIBC
(4.33.18 ± 97.248 µg/dl), Serum Ferritin (32.9 ±14.2 ng/mL) and TS
(7.69 ± 28.84%). The overall prevalence of anaemia based on WHO
criteria (Haemoglobin <11g/dL) and iron deficiency anaemia based
on Ferritin < 12.0 ng/mL and TS<16% was found to be 21.3%, 13.5%
and 7.69% respectively among pregnant women studied. The mean
MCV, MCH and MCHC observed among the pregnant subjects was
significantly lower compared to those of non-pregnant controls (70.9
±11.5 fL, 25.4 ± 3.6 pg/cell and 31.9 ± 1.6 g/dl) compared to 84.9 fL ±
10.5, 27.8 ± 3.4 pg/cell and 32.9g/dl ± 2.0 g/dl) respectively. Blood
film examination indicated that (58.3%) of subjects that met the WHO
definition of anaemia (HB <11g/dL) showed a microcytic and
hypochromic red cell picture. The prevalence of IDA was significantly
higher in women in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy compared to the
2nd trimester.Conclusions and recommendation: Anaemia, iron deficiency and
iron-deficiency anaemia are highly prevalent among pregnant women
in Sokoto, Nigeria. We advocate for targeted iron supplementation for
pregnant women in the area. Laboratory parameters for diagnosis of
IDA should be included in antenatal care protocol of pregnant women
to facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of IDA. We advocate for the
implementation of WHO recommendation that anthelminthic and
intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) to protect pregnant women
in the area against hookworm infestation and malaria. There is also
the need for the promotion of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and
interventions such as mass media campaigns peer /outreach
education, life skill programmes to educate women on the advantages
of early ANC booking and compliance with the use of prescribed

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