Terrain Analysis for Flood Disaster Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study of Niger State, Nigeria

Type Journal Article - American Journal of Geographic Information System
Title Terrain Analysis for Flood Disaster Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study of Niger State, Nigeria
Volume 3
Issue 3
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2014
Page numbers 122-134
URL http://article.sapub.org/10.5923.j.ajgis.20140303.02.html
Following the location of large parts of Niger State in low terrain and proximity to River Niger: the largest river in Nigeria; coupled with the presence of three hydro Electric power stations in the state, Niger State has been confronted annually by flood disaster that has destroyed many lives and properties. The focus of this paper is the application of remotely sensed data and GIS techniques for terrain analysis for flood disaster vulnerability assessment of Niger State. Digital Elevation Modeling (DEM) of the State was created and classified into four: Niger valley, plains, uplands and highlands area using ArcGIS 9.3 software. It was revealed that the Niger valley and the plain terrain of the state which are classified as “highly vulnerable” and “vulnerable” respectively to flood disaster collectively cover a land area of 58.43% of the state total land area. Moreover, Katcha, Gbako, Bida, Agaei, Wushishi, Mokwa, Edati and Lapai were discovered to have their land area almost completely located in the Niger valley that is highly vulnerable to flood, while Agwara, Borgu, Bosso, Lavun, Magama and Mashegu have large portions of their lands located in the plains which were considered as vulnerable to flood. Shiroro Wushishi, Bida, Lavun and Gbako LGAs were also found to be vulnerable to flood disaster because of their locations at the downstream of Shiroro dam along River Kaduna. Some communities located at the downstream of Kainji, Jebba and Shiroro dams were also assessed for flood vulnerability through the assessment of the spatial locations of each of the communities within some specific buffer zones assed by spatial analysis of a generated database. It was recommended that remotely sensed data and GIS techniques should be adopted in creating data banks and generation of master plan for flood disaster in the state. Relocation of the communities in highly flood prone areas and pubic enlightenment on adherence to early flood warning were also recommended.

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